"1. Mai, 1959 in Ost - Berlin."
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Picture 21: 1st May 1959, East Berlin. The picture shows children with their teacher taking part in a May parade. They are wearing the neckerchief of the „Young Pioneers“ (see picture 20) and are carrying sticks with doves of peace and the letters D-D-R (GDR – German Democratic Republic) on top. Schoolteachers were obliged to organise Pioneer activities, which, at the start, led to protests, particularly from young teachers who had experienced the Hitler Youth. In 1959, membership of the „Junge Pioniere“ had reached 85% among schoolchildren. Berlin, however, was significantly below average: 67%. This was probably influenced by the proximity to West Berlin and the open sectorial borders.